Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is the use of medications with counseling and behavioral therapies to treat substance use disorders and prevent opioid overdose. Research shows that a combination of medication and therapy can successfully treat these disorders and, for some people struggling with addiction, medication-assisted treatment can help sustain recovery.
Medication-assisted treatment is primarily used for the treatment of addiction to opioids such as heroin and prescription pain relievers that contain opiates. The prescribed medication operates to normalize brain chemistry, block the euphoric effects of alcohol and opioids, relieve physiological cravings, and normalize body functions without the negative effects of the abused drug.
Medications used in medication-assisted treatment are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and medication-assisted treatment programs are clinically driven and tailored to meet each patient’s needs.
Combining medications used in medication-assisted treatment with anxiety treatment medications can be fatal. Types of anxiety treatment medications include derivatives of Benzodiazepine, such as Xanax or Valium.
Counseling and Behavioral Therapies
Under federal law, medication-assisted treatment patients must receive counseling, which could include different forms of behavioral therapy. These services are required along with medical, vocational, educational, and other assessment and treatment services.
Medication-assisted Treatment Effectiveness
The ultimate goal of medication-assisted treatment is full recovery, including the ability to live a self-directed life. This treatment approach has been shown to:
- Improve patient survival
- Increase retention in treatment
- Decrease illicit opiate use and other criminal activity among people with substance use disorders
- Increase patients’ ability to gain and maintain employment
- Improve birth outcomes among women who have substance use disorders and are pregnant
Research also shows that these medications and therapies can contribute to lowering a person’s risk of contracting HIV or hepatitis C by reducing the potential for relapse.
Unfortunately, medication-assisted treatment is greatly underused. The slow adoption of these evidence-based treatment options for alcohol and opioid dependence is partly due to misconceptions about substituting one drug for another. Discrimination against medication-assisted treatment patients is also a factor, despite state and federal laws clearly prohibiting it. Other factors include lack of training for physicians and negative opinions toward medication-assisted treatment in communities and among health care professionals.
Medications Used in Medication-assisted Treatment
The Food and Drug Administration has approved several different medications to treat opioid addiction and alcohol dependence.
A common misconception associated with medication-assisted treatment is that it substitutes one drug for another. Instead, these medications relieve the withdrawal symptoms and psychological cravings that cause chemical imbalances in the body.
Medication-assisted treatment programs provide a safe and controlled level of medication to overcome the use of an abused opioid. When provided at the proper dose, medications used in medication-assisted treatment have no adverse effects on a person’s intelligence, mental capability, physical functioning, or employability.
Medications used in medication-assisted treatment for opioid treatment can only be dispensed through a SAMHSA-certified opioid treatment program. Some of the medications used in medication-assisted treatment are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse.
Opioid Treatment Programs
Opioid treatment programs (OTPs) provide medication-assisted treatment for individuals diagnosed with an opioid use disorder. Opioid treatment programs also provide a range of services to reduce, eliminate, or prevent the use of illicit drugs, potential criminal activity, and/or the spread of infectious disease. Opioid treatment programs focus on improving the quality of life of those receiving treatment.
Opioid treatment programs must be accredited by a SAMHSA-approved accrediting body and certified by SAMHSA. The Division of Pharmacologic Therapies (DPT), part of the SAMHSA Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), oversees accreditation standards and certification processes for opioid treatment programs.
Federal law requires patients who receive treatment in an opioid treatment program to receive medical, counseling, vocational, educational, and other assessment and treatment services, in addition to prescribed medication.